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Bim-Bad Boris M. The range of approaches towards the problems of socially orientated curriculum in RussiaАвтор: Boris M. Bim-Bad
The Range of Approaches Towards the Problems of Socially Orientated Curriculum in Russia
Boris M. Bim-Bad
As a result of both global, epoch-making, and local, temporary "fights" the pedagogics has accumulated the whole spectrum of approaches and scientific schools, described in terms of specific sights, principles and methods. They can be classified on the most different basises, and one will find a whole set of such typologies in works on history of education. All of them help us being guided in the labyrinths of science, all are useful in this or other respect. For our purposes the grouping of scientific schools is based on the following initial grounds: the concept of the person and his/her development as well as psychological and social leading idea. In other words, we assume the character of the answer to problems of nature and essence of man — anthropological criterion as the basis of classification of pedagogical currents.
Pedagogical anthropology dates back to the roots of centuries - old folk wisdom — first of all, in proverbs and sayings, these "models of behavior", as they are named by a shrewd researcher of cultural anthropology, sociologist, teacher and inventor of the 20th century Omar K. Moore. Fixed in folk models of behavior modes of supervision of millions people above themselves and their children render the greatest possible, almost irresistible influence upon man.
In Russia Nikolay Pirogov (1810-1881) and Konstantin Ushinsky (1824-1870/71) were the first to lay the basis of special study of homo educandis et docens with the purpose to adapt the pedagogical theory and practice to human nature. For this purpose it is considered necessary to enrich educational thinking with all accessible data on human being. They led pedagogics to an ideal of antropologism and universalism: all knowledge of man should serve the basis to education — of soul, body, human hostel as a whole.
They constructed the curriculum theory as a system of strictly deductive conclusions from precisely determined postulates concerning human nature. They have shown, that conformity of schooling to growing children means not only adaptation of school to these or other features of the person. With the help of nature-friendly training, contents and methods of which are constantly leaning upon natural abilities and the laws of development of men, the very nature of men is being ennobled and improved.
It is only such a curriculum that allows less perfect people to bring up people more accomplished in comparison with them. Instruments of this developing training are culture of moral feelings and culture of correct thinking, contemplation, active perception of things and phenomena, knowledge of their essence, formation of an exact image of the reality, and aspiration, inherent in our abilities, to their development. The really human in man is formed by the spirit of his nation, embodied in language, religion, customs, political system, etc. But all these spontaneous influential factors still are not enough: serious self-developmental work of the pupil’s mind is also necessary.
This work transforming soul into spirit leans on feelings of pleasure and beauty of life.
Up to the revolution of 1917 in Russia this universal school of the educational anthropologists developed, which bright representatives were K. Sent-Iler (1834-1901), M. Demkov (1859-1939), P. Kapterev (1849-1921), V. Vagner (1849-1934), Ju. Ajhenval’d (1872-1928) and many others.
Peter Lesgaft (1837-1909) and Alexander Lazursky (1874-1917) created so called pedagogical charakterology — that is a typology of characters of the schoolchildren developing which contributed greatly into individualization of school curriculum.
Totalitarianism tried hard to destroy efforts to integrate philosophical and educational anthropology with training, quite often together with the people self-denyingly serving to this synthesis. From the second half of the twenties many functions of the universal school in educational sciences were taken upon itself by educational and age psychology, but under totalitarianism it also could not expect any priorities and did not receive them. Found by talented and courageous scientists — Leo Vygotsky (1896-1934), Peter Gal’perin (1902-1989), Daniel El’konin (1904-1985), Dmitry Kabalevsky (1904-1987), Boris Anan’ev (1907-1972), Vasily Suhomlinsky (1918-1970), Evald Il’enkov (1924-1979), and others - the psychological and pedagogical principles of curriculum building have remained unclaimed by practice.
In comparison with the described above current (school) in pedagogics, which it is possible to name universal, or synthetic, all others are a little one-sided in their approach to homo educandis et docens.
Indeed, the advocates of purely scientific outlook in pedagogics study man mainly as a biological phenomenon. And the representatives of sociological current count nature of a person almost wholly as a derivative from nature of a society (community). The followers of merely philosophical current assert that man is only what he/she thinks about. Totally religious current considers man solely as a crossing of two worlds, mortal and immortal. In experiential current it is accepted to see man as a product of life experience. The figures of totalitarian current reduce the specific character of the person to his/her racial, ethnic or social descent.
Despite of their incompleteness in understanding of man, in frameworks of almost all currents, directions and schools of pedagogics some valuable material checked and preserved by time is sustained.
For example, the scientific current represented by Nikolay Gundobin (1860-1908), Gregory Rossolimo (1860-1928), Alexander Nechaev (1870-1948), and others, has brought in an important contribution to perfection of techniques of training to the letter, arithmetics and labor skills. It promoted strengthening of connections of pedagogics with experimental psychology.
The sociological current which unites Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921), Nikolay Rubakin (1862-1946), Vladimir Charnoluskiy (1865-1941) and others, involved in a circle of pedagogics sociology and social psychology, history and philosophy of history, religion and cultural anthropology. The philosophical current is submitted by works of Konstantin VentzeV (1857-1947), Moses Rubinstein (1878-1953), Serge Gessen (1870-1950), Gustav Schpet (1878-1937) and others. Within the framework of this rather wide trend the program of construction of pedagogical science on the basis of philosophy has been launched, and it is distinguished by its realism and concreteness.
Religious pedagogics of Vasily Rozanov (1856-1919), Vasily Zen’kovsky (1881-1962) and others has brought the enormous contribution to the priority of morals in school curriculum. The representatives of this influential current did much for amplification of theoretical part of pedagogics, for creation of systematic and holistic educational knowledge.
The adherents of the totalitarian current aim at establishing total control above ideas, feelings, and behavior of people. They have put education on service to themselves. At school and outside of it they practiced so-called indoctrination, that is persevering, repeating intruding into mild consciousness of growing and adult people doctrines and special world outlook, necessary for ruling and prevailing groups.
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Автобиографическая статья выдающегося психолога и педагога Иосифа Моисеевича Фейгенберга (1922-2016)